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Thyroid Disorders

The thyroid is a small gland shaped as a butterfly, located at the base of the neck just below Adam's apple. The thyroid gland produces hormones that influence almost all of the metabolic processes in your body.

The most common thyroid problems arise when your thyroid produces too much hormone (hyperthyroidism) or not enough (hypothyroidism). Schedule a visit to your doctor when to diagnose thyroid disorders and manage them.

Four common thyroid disorders are Graves' disease, Hashimoto's disease, Goitre, and thyroid nodules.

Hypothyroidism

The thyroid gland is underactive, and it stems from an underproduction of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism is often caused by surgery to remove the thyroid gland, Hashimoto's disease, or damage from radiation treatment. Usually, most cases of hypothyroidism are mild.

Hypothyroidism symptoms

  • fatigue
  • dry skin
  • increased sensitivity to cold
  • memory problems
  • constipation
  • depression
  • weight gain
  • weakness
  • slow heart rate
  • coma

Hashimoto's disease

  • In this autoimmune disorder, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks thyroid tissue and slowly destroys the thyroid gland and its ability to produce hormones. It can occur at any age. This disorder mimics the symptoms of many other conditions. Symptoms include:
  • fatigue
  • depression
  • constipation
  • mild weight gain
  • dry skin
  • dry, thinning hair
  • pale, puffy face
  • heavy and irregular menstruation
  • intolerance to cold
  • an enlarged thyroid, or goiter

Hyperthyroidism

In hyperthyroidism, the thyroid gland is overactive and produces too much of its hormone. This disorder is less common in men and affects about 1 percent of women. Graves disease, goitre also causes the gland to overproduce its hormones.

The symptoms include:

  • restlessness
  • nervousness
  • racing heart
  • irritability
  • increased sweating
  • shaking
  • anxiety
  • trouble sleeping
  • thin skin
  • brittle hair and nails
  • muscle weakness
  • weight loss
  • bulging eyes

Graves' disease

Graves' is an autoimmune disorder that occurs when the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid gland and leads to the production of too much thyroid hormone. The grave's disease is hereditary and can develop at any age in men or women.

The symptoms include:

  • anxiety
  • irritability
  • fatigue
  • hand tremors
  • increased or irregular heartbeat
  • excessive sweating
  • difficulty sleeping
  • diarrhea or frequent bowel movements
  • altered menstrual cycle
  • goiter

bulging eyes and vision problems

Goitre

Goitre is a noncancerous enlargement of the butterfly-shaped gland below the Adam's apple(thyroid gland). The most common cause of Goitre is an iodine deficiency in the diet. Goitre can affect at any age, and symptoms that do occur might include swelling and coughing.

The Goitre may cause the following symptoms:

  • swelling or tightness in your neck
  • difficulties breathing or swallowing
  • coughing or wheezing
  • hoarseness of voice

Thyroid nodules

Thyroid nodules are the abnormal masses in the thyroid gland. The cause of these nodules could be benign tumors, benign cysts, or, by cancers of the thyroid. They may be single or multiple and can vary in size. The nodules can cause symptoms related to compression of nearby structures if they become excessively large.

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